History Of The Ballast Water Management System
Scientists first recognized the signs of an alien species introduction after a mass occurrence of the Asian phytoplankton algae Odontella (Biddulphia sinensis) in the North Sea in 1903. But it was not until the 1970s that the scientific community began reviewing the problem in detail. In the late 1980s, Canada and Australia were among countries experiencing particular problems with invasive species, and they brought their concerns to the attention of IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC)
The spread of invasive species is now recognized as one of the greatest threats to the ecological and the economic well being of the planet. These species are causing enormous damage to biodiversity and the valuable natural riches of the earth upon which we depend. Direct and indirect health effects are becoming increasingly serious and the damage to the environment is often irreversible.
Approval of the Ballast Water Management System
In september 1988 Canada Gave a repport to the 26. MPEC which include the pollution caused by the ships ballast water discharge to the Great Lake. In this repport Canada expressed concern about microorganism effect to the enviroment. Also USA gave same concern to the MPEC.
After more than 14 years of complex negotiations between IMO Member States, the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) was adopted by consensus at a Diplomatic Conference held at IMO Headquarters in London on 13 February 2004. In his opening address to the Conference the Secretary-General of IMO stated that the new Convention would represent a significant step towards protecting the marine environment for this and future generations. “Our duty to our children and their children cannot be over-stated. I am sure we would all wish them to inherit a world with clean, productive, safe and secure seas – and the outcome of this Conference, by staving off an increasingly serious threat, will be essential to ensuring this is so”.
Standarts of the treatment according to IMO BWM
Standarts of the Ballast water mangement separated two headlines as Standart D1 and Standart D2. While D1 regulation including the changing water of the ballast , D2 regulation including performance and the management of the ballast water.
As known,while changing the ballast water ; organsim and patojens cannot survive because of the salt, temperature and checimical diffirancies, at the time ballast water deployed to the ocean or open seas, which was taken to the vessel from shore.
Like the same way, ballast water which taken to the vessel from open seas and ocean isnt threat fort he enviorement. Because the open seas and oceans have less microorganism and patojen istead of the shore water. For that reasons possiblity of carriying patojens and microorganism with ballst water significantly reduced.
As a result changing the ballast water executing in the deep seas and at least cahnging % 95 of the capacity of the ballast water is mandotory. Aprroved Ballast water changing methods are Sequential Method, the Flow-through method and the Dilution Method.
Beside of the methods of the changing ballast water generating opresianly difficulties and concerns ;solution is completly effective about transmission of patojens and aquatic organism inside of the ballast water.
Convantion aiming the fabricating ballast water management system to the vesseles by table at bellow with consideringly the date of construct and ballast water capacity.
At last after 21 june 2012 it is be required as ballast water treatment for changing ballast water occasion of the visiting any US harbor. BWT systems must be aprovved by USCG. Alternativly system which was chosen must have certificate of the IMO. Another alternative could be suppliying the fresh water as a ballast water condşton of the suppliying must be done from US. İn that situtaiton it requries to cleaning of the ballast tanks and its sediments. After that the certifacate will be preapared about the ballast water meet federal standarts.
|Application date of the Balast Water Performance Standard|
|Dates on which only Regulation D-2 is applicable|
|1500 to 5000||D-2|
|Up to 1500 or
|Up to 5000||D-2|
Red spot in the table shows after which year to setting up the ballast water treatment system is mandatory fort he vessels. As it seen in the table some vessels already contracted to the convention. İt is important to having this systems as soon as possible. The contract will be operated after 12 months when the condition meets.
The vessel which was construcated before 2009; D2 condition must be meets during thefirst Intermediate Survey or Special Survey when the following year the vessel was contracted.
What is The Purpose of the Ballast Water Treatment System?
For now 20 different type of the Ballast water treatment system was approved by G8 with scope of the rules and as provided.
These systems, UV radtion, Balast water Electrolisation, Chemical dosage, gas enjection, condensing and dissolution etc. There are coupled another system with ballast water treatment system For filtering big organism and particules. Many of these coupled system filtering the inlet water of the ballast water filtering again outlet water of the ballast water.
All developed ballast water treatment system in the world and general specification are in the bellow table.
Filtration: while taking a ballast water, Sediment and pariticules are turblanced by disc and filters. Generaly filters have a self cleaning with back-flushing method. Filters maybe provoke low pressure and flow rate cause by ressitance of the inside components of filter.
Cyclonic Seperation: Solid paticules are separated by force of centrifuge forces. Hardly the separated particules must have intenser than sea water in this method.
Electomechanic Separation: the solvent with Flocculent which injected to the water, adsorb a organisims and sediments. After that the water cleansed by magnetic separation and filtration.
Ultraviole Light: UV radition used for to directly destroy the organism or prevent to multipy by burning the cell Wall. Effect degree is connected with opacity of the water.
Caitation: Venturi Pipes or slot Plate use for to make cavitation buble. Hydrodynamic forces and ultrasonic vibrations or high frequency voices which occured by these high energied air bubbles are destroy the organism or preventing to multipy by burning the cell Wall effectivly.
Deoxygenation: the different methodes have been usage for changing the slakced oxygen inside of the ballast water with noneffective azote or inert gas. İts forseen to Preventing oxgyen or keeping it correct level provide to destroy organism and preventing the corrosion formation as well. However this operation could take pretty long time.
Disinfectant Fluid : Disinfectant Fluid aiming the destroy living organism with mixing the prepacked disinfectant chemical poision to the ballast water which is inflow while taking the ballast water. İt includes Typical biyosids chlorine, chloride ions, chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite ve ozone. These method may need to get adaptation of waste biosits to wanted standarts with additional neutralisation technics.
Electrolytic Fluid: Chlorine, Sodium Hypochlorite and hyroxil which are free flowing , are produced by giving and current to the flowing ballast water inside of the electrolytic circle. For that reason ozone and Hydrogen peroxide could be produced and electrochemical oxidation could be occur. These method limited with sea water which include definite salt level, otherwise undesaireable waste foration could be occur.
Working Schema of the System (Filtraiton and Treatment):
The Filtration System removes sediments and larger organisms and the Chlorine Dioxide Treatment System eliminates smaller organisms and pathogens. The Filtration System is placed in close proximity to the ballast water pumps but the Treatment System can be placed in any convenient location on the ship. The automated system is crew-friendly and easy to operate. It is highly energy efficient and engineered for long life.
- Completely effective on all potential aquatic invasive species including zooplankton, phytoplankton, algae, microorganisms and even pathogens and viruses, regardless of turbidity, salinity or temperature
- Meets or exceeds both IMO D2 and USCG standards
- Ideally suited for installation on all ships especially the mid-sized to largest bulkers and tankers in the world
- Design options for hazardous area installations
- Superior economic scale-up performance over competition